Water System Manual
research is the basis for an effective strategy for behavior change. Collecting
background data for a safe water system project is described in section 1.0. Additional
formative research is described in section 7.1.
annex summarizes some major points about formative research and provides some
example focus group discussion guides:
Sample focus group discussion questions about water treatment and storage (used
by CARE Kenya Nyanza Healthy Water Project)
· Sample focus group discussion
guide for brand name, logo, and slogan development (used by CARE Kenya Nyanza
Healthy Water Project)
of Formative Research
Identify risk practices
· Select practices for intervention
Select target populations (e.g., mothers of young children, school age students,
· Determine most effective and relevant messages for
target populations (e.g., for mothers-"good mothers provide safe water for
kids"; for students-"help kill microbes that cause illness.")
Determine channels of communication (e.g., radio messages, street theatre, discussions
in schools, health centers, markets)
· Design and field test communication
and other behavior change strategies and materials
characterize each sector of town/region
Information sources: meet with leaders,
women's groups, health personnel
water sources, causes of diarrhea, diarrhea treatment and prevention, health priorities
of community, hygienic practices/excreta disposal, child feeding, access to health
education, animals in compound
Information sources: Women's groups, opinion
leaders, educators, health personnel (traditional vs. modern), community organization
of health status
sources: Epidemiologic data - local government, health centers/posts, special
studies of causes of diarrhea, case control/cohort studies
water sources, water treatment practices, water storage practices, human waste
Information sources: Households
water handling, hygienic practices, methods of communication
Health workers, mothers
attitudes, practices, beliefs (KAPB) study
Quantitative study of KAPB re: water
handling, diarrhea prevention, communication sources
Cross check data for consistency.
Need political commitment at all levels
for project to work.
Formative research team should include outsiders trained
in public health, social sciences, and insiders who know community.
Sample Focus Group Discussion Questions
(Used by CARE Kenya Nyanza Healthy
Introductions and statement of purpose of the meeting
occupation, education level, marital status, family size
What are your main service needs in your village?
are the major health problems in your village?
What do you understand by safe drinking water?
do you think makes water unsafe for drinking? (at source and at home)
can you do to make the water safe?
boiling is mentioned
4. How many of you boil drinking water?
fuel do you use?
long do you take to collect the fuel?
much does the fuel cost you if bought?
long do you take to light the fire?
long does the water take to boil?
long does the water take to cool?
average how much water do you boil per day?
do you like about boiling?
do you dislike about boiling?
chemicals are mentioned
5. How did you hear about these chemicals?
chemicals are these?
are they used?
ever tried them?
do you like about chemical treatment of drinking water?
do you dislike about chemical treatment of drinking water?
What are the qualities of a safe water storage vessel?
clay pot (20 liters estimated volume)
7. How many of you use clay pots to store
in clay pots be contaminated?
do you clean the clay pots?
How much does
How long does
What do you
like about storing drinking water in a clay pot?
do you dislike about storing drinking water in a clay pot?
common plastic container
8. How many of you use this to store drinking water?
water in this container be contaminated?
do you clean this container?
much does it cost?
long does it last?
do you like about storing water in this container?
do you dislike about storing water in this container?
9. What do you think about this container?
special features does it have? (Different from the other two)
water in this container be contaminated?
would you clean this container?
much do you think it might cost?
can you make water cool in such a container?
do you like / dislike about storing water in this container?
you willing to buy such a container if it is in the market?
is the maximum amount of money you can pay for the container if you were to buy
of the three containers
10. Out of these 3 containers, which one do you prefer
for water storage and why?
Who decides on which water storage container to buy for the household?
is he/she the one who makes the decision?
decides on the general household expenditure?
DURATION OF INTERVIEW: 1 HOUR 30 MINUTES
Sample Focus Group Discussion Guide for Brand Name, Logo, and Slogan Development
(Used by CARE Kenya Nyanza Healthy Water Project)
Introduction of respondents and moderator
If a safe chemical for water treatment was available to you and supposing you
were to buy, where would you expect to buy it?
much would you pay for it at the most if you were to buy the chemical to last
you one month?
do you expect the chemical to have been produced? (Local, Nairobi or Imported)
Read out suggested names.
do you think about that name?
do you associate the name with?
it arouse negative feelings or positive feelings?
Which one do you
prefer for a safe water treatment chemical? (No.1, 2, & 3)
Show different logo drawings
do you think is the meaning of this symbol?
do you associate with it?
it arouse negative feelings or positive feelings to you?
one do you prefer for a safe water storage chemical? (No. 1, 2, & 3)
Read different slogans
do you understand by the following statement?
it remind you of any good or bad thing?
Which one do
you recommend for a safe water treatment chemical? (No. 1, 2, & 3)
Which colour do
you associate with clean drinking water?
of these colours do you associate with clean water?
one would you prefer for a safe water treatment chemical?
Unsealed & sealed bottles
of these two capping systems do you prefer for a safe water treatment chemical?