Health Education To Villages




Home Programmes Resources India Partners Site Map About Us Contact Us
 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
 CDC Home Search Health Topics A-Z
Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases BranchLink Online to Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases BranchCDC MenuSafe Water System Menu

Safe Water System Manual


ANNEX G:


FORMATIVE RESEARCH

Formative research is the basis for an effective strategy for behavior change. Collecting background data for a safe water system project is described in section 1.0. Additional formative research is described in section 7.1.

This annex summarizes some major points about formative research and provides some example focus group discussion guides:

· Sample focus group discussion questions about water treatment and storage (used by CARE Kenya Nyanza Healthy Water Project)
· Sample focus group discussion guide for brand name, logo, and slogan development (used by CARE Kenya Nyanza Healthy Water Project)

ABOUT FORMATIVE RESEARCH

Plan of Formative Research

· Identify risk practices
· Select practices for intervention
· Select target populations (e.g., mothers of young children, school age students, opinion leaders)
· Determine most effective and relevant messages for target populations (e.g., for mothers-"good mothers provide safe water for kids"; for students-"help kill microbes that cause illness.")
· Determine channels of communication (e.g., radio messages, street theatre, discussions in schools, health centers, markets)
· Design and field test communication and other behavior change strategies and materials

Formative Research Methods

Site study

Topic: characterize each sector of town/region
Information sources: meet with leaders, women's groups, health personnel

Focus groups

Topics: water sources, causes of diarrhea, diarrhea treatment and prevention, health priorities of community, hygienic practices/excreta disposal, child feeding, access to health education, animals in compound
Information sources: Women's groups, opinion leaders, educators, health personnel (traditional vs. modern), community organization

Evaluation of health status

Information sources: Epidemiologic data - local government, health centers/posts, special studies of causes of diarrhea, case control/cohort studies

Structured observation

Topics: water sources, water treatment practices, water storage practices, human waste disposal
Information sources: Households

Structured interviews

Topics: water handling, hygienic practices, methods of communication
Information sources: Health workers, mothers

Knowledge, attitudes, practices, beliefs (KAPB) study
Quantitative study of KAPB re: water handling, diarrhea prevention, communication sources

Information sources: Households

HINTS:
Cross check data for consistency.
Need political commitment at all levels for project to work.
Formative research team should include outsiders trained in public health, social sciences, and insiders who know community.


Sample Focus Group Discussion Questions
(Used by CARE Kenya Nyanza Healthy Water Project)

1. Introductions and statement of purpose of the meeting
         Name, occupation, education level, marital status, family size

2. What are your main service needs in your village?
         What are the major health problems in your village?

3. What do you understand by safe drinking water?
         What do you think makes water unsafe for drinking? (at source and at home)
         What can you do to make the water safe?

Once boiling is mentioned
4. How many of you boil drinking water?
         What fuel do you use?
         How long do you take to collect the fuel?
         How much does the fuel cost you if bought?
         How long do you take to light the fire?
         How long does the water take to boil?
         How long does the water take to cool?
         On average how much water do you boil per day?
         What do you like about boiling?
         What do you dislike about boiling?

If chemicals are mentioned
5. How did you hear about these chemicals?
         Which chemicals are these?
         How are they used?
         Have you ever tried them?
         What do you like about chemical treatment of drinking water?
         What do you dislike about chemical treatment of drinking water?

6. What are the qualities of a safe water storage vessel?

Show clay pot (20 liters estimated volume)
7. How many of you use clay pots to store drinking water?
         Can water in clay pots be contaminated?
         How?
         How do you clean the clay pots?
         After how long?
         How much does it cost?
         How long does it last?
         What do you like about storing drinking water in a clay pot?
         What do you dislike about storing drinking water in a clay pot?

Show common plastic container
8. How many of you use this to store drinking water?
         Can water in this container be contaminated?
         How?
         How do you clean this container?
         How much does it cost?
         How long does it last?
         What do you like about storing water in this container?
         What do you dislike about storing water in this container?

Show specialized container
9. What do you think about this container?
         What special features does it have? (Different from the other two)
         Can water in this container be contaminated?
         How?
         How would you clean this container?
         How much do you think it might cost?
         How can you make water cool in such a container?
         What do you like / dislike about storing water in this container?
         Are you willing to buy such a container if it is in the market?
         What is the maximum amount of money you can pay for the container if you were to buy it?

Comparison of the three containers
10. Out of these 3 containers, which one do you prefer for water storage and why?

Decision-making
11. Who decides on which water storage container to buy for the household?
         Why is he/she the one who makes the decision?
         Who decides on the general household expenditure?


EXPECTED DURATION OF INTERVIEW: 1 HOUR 30 MINUTES

Sample Focus Group Discussion Guide for Brand Name, Logo, and Slogan Development
(Used by CARE Kenya Nyanza Healthy Water Project)

1. Introduction of respondents and moderator
         Purpose of discussion.

2. If a safe chemical for water treatment was available to you and supposing you were to buy, where would you expect to buy it?
         Why?
         How much would you pay for it at the most if you were to buy the chemical to last you one month?
         Where do you expect the chemical to have been produced? (Local, Nairobi or Imported)

3. Brand Name
Read out suggested names.
         What do you think about that name?
         What do you associate the name with?
         Does it arouse negative feelings or positive feelings?
         Why?
         Pronounce it.
         Which one do you prefer for a safe water treatment chemical? (No.1, 2, & 3)
         Why?

4. Logo
Show different logo drawings
         What do you think is the meaning of this symbol?
         What do you associate with it?
         Does it arouse negative feelings or positive feelings to you?
         Why?
         Which one do you prefer for a safe water storage chemical? (No. 1, 2, & 3)
         Why?

5. Slogan
Read different slogans
         What do you understand by the following statement?
         Does it remind you of any good or bad thing?
         Which is that?
         Which one do you recommend for a safe water treatment chemical? (No. 1, 2, & 3)
         Why?

6. Colour
         Which colour do you associate with clean drinking water?

         Show different colours
         Which of these colours do you associate with clean water?
         Which one would you prefer for a safe water treatment chemical?

7. Unsealed & sealed bottles
         Which of these two capping systems do you prefer for a safe water treatment chemical?
         Why?

 

Home

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Infectious Diseases
Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases
Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch

 

 The Mother and Child Health and Education Trust Programmes | Resources | India | Partners | Site Map | About Us | Contact Us top of page

Feedback Form