Resources for Safe Water, Hygiene and Sanitation
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Facts for Life
Author: UNICEF, WHO, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNDP, UNAIDS, WFP and the World Bank
Publication date: April 2010
Languages: English French Spanish
The fourth edition of Facts for Life contains essential information that
families and communities need to know to raise healthy children. This
handbook provides practical advice on pregnancy, childbirth, childhood
illnesses, child development and the care of children. This edition also
features a new chapter on child protection. The book is intended for
parents, families, health workers, teachers, youth groups, women’s groups,
community organizations, government officials, employers, trade unions,
media, and non-governmental and faith-based organizations.
Diarrhoea : Why children are still
dying and what can be done
14 October, 2009 -
New UNICEF/WHO Report Focuses Attention on Diarrheal Disease—the Second Leading Killer of Children Under 5—and Outlines 7-point Plan to Control This
Preventable and Treatable Illness
The report highlights the proven diarrheal disease prevention and treatment solutions already available today. Many children in the developing world
cannot access urgent medical care for severe illnesses, making prevention methods—including improved hygiene, sanitation, safe drinking water,
exclusive breastfeeding, and vaccines preventing rotavirus—critical components of diarrheal disease control. When diarrhea occurs, it can be
effectively treated with simple solutions, including oral rehydration therapy/oral rehydration solution, zinc and other micronutrients, and continued feeding.
State - Waterborne Diseases Epidemic Information
For the last 10 years - as at 20 March 2004
State - ORS Supply Information
For the last 10 years - as at 20 March 2004
How to turn unsafe water into drinkable water
If necessary: Remove particles
To remove contamination with solid particles pre-filter the unsafe water with a
piece of cloth or a coffee filter. This method does not remove micro-organism. You still have to disinfect with heat or chemicals.
If possible: Disinfection with heat
Sufficient heat will kill micro-organisms in contaminated water already at a temperature below the boiling point. During the time needed to reach boiling
point the water is heated long enough for disinfection. There is no need to boil water for 5 minutes, 10 minutes, or 20 minutes, as some guide books recommend!
If heat is impossible: Chemical Disinfection
A) With Iodine
Iodine has advantages over chlorine in convenience and efficacy; and the taste
is less offensive. It is safe for short and intermediate length use (3-6 months), but questions remain about its safety in long-term usage. It should not
be used by persons with allergy to iodine, persons with active thyroid disease, or pregnant women. When the iodine is added to the water leave the preparation
for 30 minutes in clear weather or 60 minutes in cloudy weather.
Table of available Iodine preparations:
|Iodine Topical Solution 2%
|Iodine Tincture 2%
|Lugol's Solution 5%
|Povidone-Iodine (Betadine�) 10%
|Tetraglycine hydroperiodide (Globaline�, Potable Aqua�, EDWGT�) 8 mg
B) With chlorine
Any common brand of liquid chlorine bleach contains 5-6 % sodium hypochlorite.
For 1 liter of unsafe water use 4 drops chlorine and wait 30 minutes. For 20 liters of water add 80 drops (1 tablespoon or 5 ml) chlorine. Measuring by drops
is more accurate and the preferred method. When the chlorine is added to the water leave the preparation for 30 minutes in clear weather or 60 minutes in
Dr. Walter Schrader - remedi.org
UN | Water for
Life, 2005-2015 - International Decade for Action
Video: "Water for Life" produced by
Global Visions [English]
Real Player download
for the International "Water for Life" Decade
20 pages 2.1 mb
Water is essential for life. Yet many millions of people around the
world face water shortages. Many millions of children die every year from
water-borne diseases. And drought regularly afflicts some of the world’s
poorest countries. The world needs to respond much better. We need to
increase water efficiency, especially in agriculture. We need to free
women and girls from the daily chore of hauling water, often over great
distances. We must involve them in decision-making on water management. We
need to make sanitation a priority. This is where progress is lagging
Kofi A. Annan, 22 March 2005
WHO | Water, Sanitation and Hygiene links to
Health: Facts and Figures
updated November 2004
- 1.8 million people die every year from diarrhoeal diseases
(including cholera); 90% are children under 5, mostly in developing
- 88% of diarrhoeal disease is attributed to unsafe water supply,
inadequate sanitation and hygiene.
- Improved water supply reduces diarrhoea morbidity by between 6% to
25%, if severe outcomes are included.
- Improved sanitation reduces diarrhoea morbidity by 32%.
- Hygiene interventions including hygiene education and promotion of
hand washing can lead to a reduction of diarrhoeal cases by up to 45%.
- Improvements in drinking-water quality through household water
treatment, such as chlorination at point of use, can lead to a reduction
of diarrhoea episodes by between 35% and 39%.
|Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target:
A mid-term assessment of progress
26 August, 2004
In adopting the Millennium Development Goals that address the most pressing development issues, countries pledged to halve the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Yet, more than 1 billion people today lack safe drinking water, and some 2.6 billion - half of the developing world - lack improved sanitation. This publication reports on our progress towards the MDG goal of ensuring environmental sustainability. It seeks to encourage countries slow to meet the target to accelerate action, and highlights areas where efforts need to be strengthened in order to meet the goal.
UN Water Report
Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target
Why world's taps are running dry
Water Facts: The Big Picture
A statistical view of the world's water - BBC
water hot spots
From disappearing lakes and dwindling rivers to military threats over shared
resources, water is a cause for deep concern in many parts of the world.
Supplies are threatened by overuse, bad management and changing weather
patterns. The pressure will only increase as populations grow.
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