Department of Reproductive Health and Research (RHR), World Health Organization
Sexually transmitted and other reproductive tract infections
A guide to essential practice
HIV counselling and testing
Testing for HIV infection has several potential benefits, from promoting prevention to improving access to care and prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (see Chapter 7). HIV testing should always be voluntary, conducted by trained staff with respect for privacy and confidentiality, and include pre- and post-test counselling.
Indications for screening
In most communities, voluntary HIV counselling and testing services should be available:
Available screening tools
There are many kinds of HIV tests available. WHO recommends confirmatory testing with a second test of a different type before the client is notified of a positive result.
Counselling and testing for HIV should be available to reproductive health clients on-site or through referral. Counselling and testing for HIV includes:
Counselling and testing for HIV should be voluntary and the consent of the patient is always required. HIV testing should never be done on the request of another person, and results should only be given in person to the client.
Infections of the male and female reproductive tract and their consequences:
Preventing STIs/RTIs and their complications
STI/RTI education and counselling
Promoting prevention of STI/RTI and use of services
STI/RTI Assessment during Routine Family Planning Visits
STI/RTI Assessment in pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period
Management of symptomatic STIs/RTIs
STI/RTI complications related to pregnancy, miscarriage, induced abortion, and the postpartum period
Annex 1. Clinical skills needed for STI/RTI
Annex 2. Disinfection and universal precautions
Annex 3. Laboratory tests for RTI
Annex 4. Medications