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Department of Reproductive Health and Research (RHR), World Health Organization

Sexually transmitted and other reproductive tract infections

A guide to essential practice



Annex 6. Additional resources and suggested reading

Adolescent friendly health services: an agenda for change. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002.

Burns A et al. Where women have no doctor. Berkeley, CA, USA, Hesperian Foundation, 1997.

Cervical cancer screening programmes. Managerial guidelines. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1992.

Clinical guides for the management of pregnant women with HIV infection. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004.

Clinical management of survivors of rape: a guide to the development of protocols for use in refugee and internally displaced person situations. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001.

Comprehensive reproductive health and family planning training curriculum. Reproductive health training module 12: prevention and management of reproductive tract infections. Watertown, MA, USA, Pathfinder International, 2000.

Dallabetta G, Laga M, Lamptey P, eds. Control of sexually transmitted diseases: a handbook for the design and management of programs. Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, AIDSCAP, Family Health International, 1996.

Evaluation of the 100% condom programme in Thailand. Geneva, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2000.

Global prevalence and incidence of selected curable sexually transmitted diseases: overview and estimates. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001.

Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003.

Managing complications in pregnancy and childbirth: a guide for midwives and doctors. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2000.

Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use Third edition. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004.

Pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum and newborn care: a guide for essential practice. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003.

Protocols for the medical management of persons who experienced sexual violence. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003.

Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: guidelines for a public health approach. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002.

Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use. Second edition. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004.

The decision-making tool for family planning clients and providers. Geneva, World Health Organization (in press).

Van Dyck E, Meheus ZA, Piot P. Laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999.

Women’s health exchange, Issue No 10. Berkeley, CA, USA, Hesperian Foundation, 2002.

World report on violence and health. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002.

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Infections of the male and female reproductive tract and their consequences:

What are RTIs?

Why STI/RTIs are important?

What can be done about RTIs?

The role of clinical services in reducing the burden of STI/RTI

Preventing STIs/RTIs and their complications

How to prevent STI

How to prevent iatrogenic infections

How to prevent endogenous infections

Detecting STI/RTI

Detecting STI/RTI


Vaginal infections

Cervical infections

Pelvic inflammatory disease

HIV counselling and testing

STI/RTI education and counselling

Key points

Privacy and confidentiality

General skills for STI/RTI education and counselling

Health education


Promoting prevention of STI/RTI and use of services

Key points

Reducing barriers to use of services

Raising awareness and promoting services

Reaching groups that do not typically use reproductive health services

STI/RTI Assessment during Routine Family Planning Visits

Key points

Integrating STI/RTI assessment into routine FP services

Family planning methods and STIs/RTIs

STI/RTI Assessment in pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period

Key points

Management of symptomatic STIs/RTIs

Syndromic management of STI/RTI

Management of common syndromes

STI case management and prevention of new infections

STI/RTI complications related to pregnancy, miscarriage, induced abortion, and the postpartum period

Key points

Infection in early pregnancy

Infection in lated pregnancy

Infection following childbirth

Vaginal discharge in pregnancy and the postpartum period

Sexual violence

Key points

Medical and other care for survivors of sexual assault

Annex 1. Clinical skills needed for STI/RTI


Common STI/RTI symptoms

Examining patients

Annex 2. Disinfection and universal precautions

Preventing infection in clinical settings

High-level disinfection: three steps

Universal precautions

Annex 3. Laboratory tests for RTI

Interpreting syphilis test results

Clinical criteria for bacterial vaginosis (BV)

Wet mount microscopy

Gram stain microscopy of vaginal smears

Use of Gram stain for diagnosis of cervical infection

Annex 4. Medications

Medications in pregnancy

Antibiotic treatments for gonorrhoa

Annex 5.

STI/RTI reference table


Additionnal resources


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