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Breastfeeding


Home > Programmes > Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding News
Facts for Feeding
Frequently Asked Questions
Complementary Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding and HIV
Linkages Project Publications

 

 

Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding  get re-acquainted!   more >>

Babies who are breastfed are generally healthier and achieve optimal growth and development compared to those who are fed formula milk.

If the vast majority of babies were exclusively fed breastmilk in their first six months of life – meaning only breastmilk and no other liquids or solids, not even water – it is estimated that the lives of at least 1.2 million children would be saved every year. If children continue to be breastfed up to two years and beyond, the health and development of millions of children would be greatly improved.
 


 

World Breastfeeding Week 2012

1 to 7 August 2012

The World Breastfeeding Week (WBW) is the greatest outreach vehicle for the breastfeeding movement, being celebrated in over 170 countries. Officially it is celebrated from 1–7 August. However, groups may choose other dates to make it a more successful event in their countries.

For more information on the theme, exciting activities & materials for download, please visit the World Breastfeeding Week website.
 



Breastfeeding
 

Breastfeeding

Protect against diseases through the promotion of clear guidelines about proper feeding practices and the benefits of immunity. Promote the practice of providing colostrum to the child within the first half hour after birth, exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of a child’s life, with appropriate complementary feeding from six months and continued breastfeeding for two years or beyond, with supplementation of vitamin A and other micronutrients as needed.


 

Name: Promotion of Proper Breastfeeding Practices
Status:
Theme: Health Education to Mothers Region and Country: Maharashtra, India
Partners: Beneficiaries:
Funding Need: Budget:
Duration: Contact:



Programme Activities:
A team of researchers will focus on some key points of investigation about why many (how many?) mothers in the state of Maharashtra are not practicing proper breastfeeding practices:

  • What is the general attitude about exclusive breastfeeding for the baby's first six months with complementary feeding for up to two years and providing colostrum within the first half hour after birth?
     

  • Are health care providers emphasizing the importance of breastfeeding and teaching mothers techniques on how and when to start breastfeeding their child immediately after the mother gives birth?
     

  • Are health care providers promoting something besides breastfeeding such as formula, glucose waters, or other mixtures to mothers for commercial or other purposes?
     

  • Are health care providers aware themselves of the nutritional and immunal (?) value of colostrum and that it is produced almost immediately following birth? Similarly, are health care providers aware that exclusive breast milk until a baby is six months old with complementary feeding for up to two years is the best food for a baby in almost all cases?
     

  • Why are some mothers not providing colostrum within the first half hour of a child's birth? Is there a lack of knowledge or confusion surrounding when they start producing colostrum and milk, and that they baby needs it within the first half hour? Are they fatigued from delivery and therefore not encouraged from family members or medical professionals to begin providing colostrum?
     

  • What are the reasons for some mothers not engaging in exclusive breastfeeding practices for 6 months with supplementary feeding for up to two years? Are they misguided by health professionals or cultural beliefs? Are they working, tired, or have a schedule that makes breastfeeding impossible? Are they producing enough milk and aware that a feeding child increases milk production? Is there a lack of knowledge or confusion about how and when to begin weaning a child from breastmilk and how to introduce supplementary feeding?

Intended Results:
Through a multi-tiered investigation of why all mothers are not partaking in proper breastfeeding practices, programmes will be designed to target the causes of the problem. The programmes will be targeted to reach and educate a three-fold audience: mothers, health care providers, and the general public.

Programme Management and Implementation:
Messages will be provided to mothers, health care providers, and the general public through training programmes, TV and radio broadcasts, and instructive pamphlets. The materials designed for and used in the program will be pre-tested to ensure clarity and success on a larger scale.

Programme Monitoring and Evaluation:
Initially programme monitoring will ensure that materials are reaching the appropriate audiences, that broadcasts air when scheduled, and other technical issues. Eventually, monitoring will check recall and the understanding of the targeted audiences. Statistics on mothers providing colostrum to their baby within the first half hour of birth and practicing exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months with complementary feeding for up to two years will be evaluated and compared to statistics before programme implementation. The programme will be revised and adapted as necessary.

Learning and Dissemination:


Related Resources:

Notes from the Field: Communication for Child Survival. Breastfeeding Practices in Jordan: Designing Effective Messages by Anne H. Roberts and Renata Seidel (51-68)

 


Page links
Breastfeeding the first 6 months of life | Advantages of breastfeeding | Weaning a critical time for diarrhoea transmission
 
 

Breast Milk is best. Nothing that money can buy is as good for a baby as breastfeeding.
  1. Initiation of Breastfeeding within the first hour of life,
     
  2. Exclusive Breastfeeding for six months,
     
  3. Timely Complementary Feeding with appropriate foods, and
     
  4. Continued Breastfeeding for Two Years and beyond.


 

breast milk, breastmilk, breastfeeding, breast feeding is best
click to enlarge
photo UNICEF, India

Off-page links
Breastfeeding News
Facts for Feeding
Frequently Asked Questions
Complementary Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding and HIV
Linkages Project Publications


Off-site links
Health Basics insert: Breastfeeding
Feeding the Newborn and Infants - Breastfeeding: Some Basic Facts
Dr. R. K. Anand's Guide to Child Care

Worldwide Breastfeeding Partners
World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action [WABA]
The International Baby Food Action Network [IBFAN]
La Leche League International [LLLI]
Linkages Project
International Lactation Consultant Association [ILCA]
Wellstart International
Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine [ABM]

Related links
Breastfeeding: helping to reduce the severity of diarrhoea
Breastfeeding in emergencies
Breastfeeding prevents infection
Breastfeeding promotion: the right start
Breastfeeding twins
Congratulations to the mothers
Exclusive breastfeeding (letter)
Exclusive breastfeeding
Extra drinks are unnecessary
Help for breastfeeding mothers
How to feed a baby who cannot breastfeed
How to help a woman to re-establish lactation
'I do not have enough milk.'
Passport to life: breastmilk banking in India
Perspectives on human milk banking
Portugal: rediscovering breastfeeding
Promoting breastfeeding in urban communities
Promoting the benefits of breastfeeding
Training health care workers to counsel breastfeeding mothers
WHO study
Women, work and breastfeeding
Zealous promotion of breastfeeding is not the answer (letter)


 

Breastfeeding - the first 6 months of life

Increasing optimal breastfeeding practices could save an estimated 1.5 million infant lives annually. Up to 55 percent of infant deaths from diarrheal disease and acute respiratory infections may result from inappropriate feeding practices. Optimal feeding for sustained child health and growth includes initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, exclusive breastfeeding for six months, timely complementary feeding with appropriate foods, and continued breastfeeding for two years and beyond.

During the first 6 months of life, infants should be exclusively breastfed. This means that the healthy baby should receive breastmilk and no other fluids, such as water, teas, juice, cereal drinks, animal milk or formula. Exclusively breastfed babies are much less likely to get diarrhoea or to die from it than are babies who are not breastfed or are partially breastfed. Breastfeeding also protects against the risk of allergy early in life, aids in child spacing and provides protection against infections other than diarrhoea (e.g. pneumonia). Breastfeeding should be continued until at least 2 years of age. The best way to establish the practice is to put the baby to the breast immediately after birth and not to give any other fluids. 

Advantages and Benefits of breastfeeding are listed below. Some or all of them may be explained to mothers using simple language. 

If breastfeeding is not possible, cow's milk or milk formula should be given from a cup. This is possible even with very young infants. Feeding bottles and teats should never be used because they are very difficult to clean and easily carry the organisms that cause diarrhoea. Careful instructions should be given on the correct preparation of milk formula using water that has been boiled briefly before use.


 

Advantages and Benefits of Breastfeeding

  1. Saves Lives. Currently there are 9 million infant deaths a year. Breastfeeding saves an estimated 6 million additional deaths from infectious disease alone.
     
  2. Provides Initial Immunization. Breastmilk, especially the first milk (colostrum), contains anti-bacterial and anti-viral agents that protect the infant against disease, especially diarrhoea. These are not present in animal milk or formula. Breastmilk also aids the development of the infant's own immune system.
     
  3. Prevents Diarrhoea / Diarrhea. Diarrhoea is the leading cause of death among infants in developing countries. Infants under two months of age who are not breastfed are 25 times as likely to die of diarrhea than infants exclusively breastfed. Continued breastfeeding during diarrhea reduces dehydration, severity, duration, and negative nutritional consequences of diarrhea.
     
  4. Provides Complete and Perfect Nutrition. Breastmilk is a perfect food that cannot be duplicated. It is more easily digested than any substitute, and it actually alters in composition to meet the changing nutritional needs of the growing infant. It provides all the nutrients and water needed by a healthy infant during the first 6 months of life. Formula or cow's milk may be too dilute (which reduces its nutritional value) or too concentrated (so that it does not provide enough water), and the proportions of different nutrients are not ideal.
     
  5. Maximizes a Child's Physical and Intellectual Potential. Malnutrition among infants up to six months of age can be virtually eradicated by the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. For young children beyond six months, breastmilk serves as the nutritional foundation to promote continued healthful growth. Premature infants fed breastmilk show higher developmental scores as toddlers and higher IQs as children than those not fed breastmilk.
     
  6. Promotes the Recovery of the Sick Child. Breastfeeding provides a nutritious, easily digestible food when a sick child loses appetite for other foods. When a child is ill or has diarrhea, breastfeeding helps prevent dehydration. Frequent breastfeeding also diminishes the risk of malnutrition and fosters catch-up growth following illness.
     
  7. Supports Food Security. Breastmilk provides total food security for an infant's first six months. It maximizes food resources, both because it is naturally renewing, and because food that would otherwise be fed to an infant can be given to others. A mother's milk supply adjusts to demand; only extremely malnourished mothers have a reduced capacity to breastfeed.
     
  8. Bonds Mother and Child. Breastfeeding immediately after delivery encourages the "bonding" of the mother to her infant, which has important emotional benefits for both and helps to secure the child's place within the family. Breastfeeding provides physiological and psychological benefits for both mother and child. It creates emotional bonds, and has been known to reduce rates of infant abandonment.
     
  9. Helps Birth Spacing. In developing countries, exclusive breastfeeding reduces total potential fertility as much as all other modern contraceptive methods combined. Mothers who breastfeed usually have a longer period of infertility after giving birth than do mothers who do not breastfeed.
     
  10. Benefits Maternal Health. Breastfeeding reduces the mother's risk of fatal postpartum hemorrhage, the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, and of anemia. By spacing births, breastfeeding allows the mother to recuperate before she conceives again.
     
  11. Saves Money. Breastfeeding is among the most cost-effective of child survival interventions. Households save money; and institutions economize by reducing the need for bottles and formulas. By shortening mothers' hospital stay, nations save foreign exchange. There are none of the expenses associated with feeding breastmilk substitutes (e.g. the costs of fuel, utensils, and special formulas, and of the mother's time in formula preparation).
     
  12. Is Environment-friendly. Breastfeeding does not waste scarce resources or create pollution. Breastmilk is a naturally-renewable resource that requires no packaging, shipping, or disposal.
     
  13. Breastfeeding is Clean. It does not require the use of bottles, nipples, water and formula which are easily contaminated with bacteria that can cause diarrhoea.
     
  14. Milk intolerance is very rare in infants who take only breastmilk.



 

 BREASTFEEDING

Best for baby
Reduces incidence of allergies
Economical - no waste
Antibodies - greater immunity to infections
Stool inoffensive - never constipated
Temperature always correct and constant
Fresh milk - never goes sour in the breast
Emotionally bonding
Easy once established
Digested easily within two to three hours
Immediately available
Nutritionally balanced
Gastroenteritis greatly reduced


From a publicity leaflet by the TIBS support group, Trinidad.


 

Weaning a critical time for diarrhoea transmission

Infants are at greatest risk of diarrhoea when foods other than breastmilk are first given. This is because during weaning infants are being exposed to food-borne germs for the first time and they are losing the protection of breastmilk which has anti-infective properties.

High levels of contamination are often found in animal milks and traditional weaning foods, especially cereal gruels. Escherichia coli, which causes at least 25 per cent of all diarrhoea in developing countries, is commonly found in weaning food.

Feeding bottles and rubber teats, which are particularly difficult to clean, are often breeding grounds for germs.

The need for infants older than 6 months to receive more than just breastmilk in order to grow well, balanced against the risk that this will result in diarrhoea, has been called 'the weaning dilemma'.

It is important for health workers to work with local communities to identify and encourage safe weaning practices and to improve infants' nutrition to increase their resistance to infections such as diarrhoea.

Improved weaning practices

Complementary foods should normally be started when a child is 6 months old. These may be started any time after 6 months of age, however, if the child is not growing satisfactorily. Good weaning practices involve selecting nutritious foods and using hygienic practices when preparing them. 

The choice of complementary foods will depend on local patterns of diet and agriculture, as well as on existing beliefs and practices. In addition to breastmilk (or animal milk), soft mashed foods (e.g. cereals) should be given, to which some vegetable oil (510 ml/serving) has been added. 

Other foods, such as well cooked pulses and vegetables, should be given as the diet is expanded. When possible, eggs, meat, fish and fruit should be also given.



Off-page link

The international code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes:
Frequently Asked Questions [Leaflet/Booklet]

World Health Organization (WHO), 2006

Better breastfeeding, healthier lives [whole issue]
March 2006

Weaning
 

Breastfeeding Resources

 

Breastfeeding Gateway

NHS Choices - Parenting Information

The Department of Health's latest online publications include pregnancy, your child's health from birth to five years, and information on feeding.


 

Listening to health workers: lessons from Eastern Uganda for strengthening the programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV
Joseph Rujumba, James K Tumwine, Thorkild Tylleskar, Stella Neema and Harald K Heggenhougen

Download pdf

The implementation and utilization of programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in most low income countries has been described as sub-optimal. As planners and service providers, the views of health workers are important in generating priorities to improve the effectiveness of the PMTCT programme in Uganda. We explored the lessons learnt by health workers involved in the provision of PMTCT services in eastern Uganda to better understand what more needs to be done to strengthen the PMTCT programme.


 

Films for women in the community, community workers and health workers

Food for life: breastfeeding
Teaches why and how women should breastfeed exclusively until their child is 6 month-old (WHO guidelines).

Food for life: what and when to feed your child (6 to 24 months)
Teaches what complementary food should be given to children aged 6 to 24 months and when.

Food for life: what pregnant women should eat
Teaches what pregnant women, and women more generally, should eat to stay healthy.


 

Breastfeeding. The Essence of Life Breastfeeding. The Essence of Life Breastfeeding. The Essence of Life Posters: Breastfeeding. The Essence of Life

438 kb

What everyone should know about breastfeeding*

“Improved breastfeeding alone could save the lives of more than 3,500 children every day, more than any other preventive intervention”

Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding � UNICEF

* Based on Facts for Life, published by UNICEF, WHO, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNDP, UNAIDS, WFP and the World Bank


 

Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Continued Breastfeeding from 6–24 + Months: Issues, Politics, Policies & Action Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Continued Breastfeeding from 6–24 + Months: Issues, Politics, Policies & Action 6 pages 403 kb

The Joint Statement on Continued Breastfeeding was produced following the WABA GBPM in October 2008 in response to shared concerns that breastfeeding after 6 months has slipped off the policy and programme agenda. Action and investment in improving complementary feeding or providing foods supplements seems to be taking place with little consideration for supporting or improving breastfeeding amongst 6 < 24+ month old children, despite estimates that 20% of deaths in 12 < 24 month age group in developing countries are due to lack of breastfeeding. The statement calls upon everyone involved in improving the health and development of infants and young children to take steps to ensure that continued breastfeeding 6-24+ months is protected, promoted and supported as the precondition for, and foundation of, appropriate complementary feeding. Steps for action encompassing communication, education and promotion; practical support; breastfeeding as part of complementary feeding; definitions and monitoring; addressing misinformation through marketing and special circumstances are described.

Click here for the statement.


 

Wellstart's Lactation Management Self-Study Modules, Level 1 The New Revised 4th Edition of Wellstart’s Lactation Management Self-Study Modules, Level 1 - English
pdf formatpdf 151 pages 1.9 mb - Edición en Español
This educational tool is downloadable without charge.

Visitors are invited but not required to help this tool to continue to be available by donating any amount they wish to Wellstart International, a US based 501(c) (3) non-profit organization that is compliant with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes.

Users are also requested to send your name, professional school that you are affiliated with and an e-mail address to [email protected] so that we may send you updates and alerts about relevant new materials and references.


 

The following publications are from LINKAGES Project. Click here for a complete list of their publications.

 

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24 Pages
 
A Guide for Calculating the Benefits of Breastfeeding (BOB)
The guide offers detailed guidance for users of the “Policy Analysis Tool for Calculating the Health, Child Spacing, and Economic Benefits of Breastfeeding (BOB)” and identifies the main features of the tool’s seven worksheets and the basis for calculations.

Author(s): J. Ross, V. Aguayo, H. Stiefel
 

Downloads Available:
English (313.1 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic A Policy Analysis Tool for Calculating the Health, Child Spacing, and Economic Benefits of Breastfeeding (BOB)
This spreadsheet tool consists of seven worksheets: 1) introduction, 2) assumptions, 3) breastmilk production, 4) health, 5) survival, 6) fertility, and 7) summary. The spreadsheets estimate the effects of breastfeeding on a variety of functional outcomes with public policy significance.

Author(s): J. Ross, V. Aguayo, H. Stiefel
 

Downloads Available:
English (110.5 KB)


 
 
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19 Pages
 
A Spreadsheet Model to Estimate the Effects of Different Infant Feeding Strategies on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and on Infant Mortality
This model was used to calculate results reported in: Ross JS, Labbok MH. Modeling the effects of different infant feeding strategies on young child survival and mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Am J Pub Health 2004; 94:1175-1181. (This model is in Microsoft Excel.)

Author(s): J. Ross, M. Labbok
 

Downloads Available:
English (467 KB)


 
 
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36 Pages
 
Antenatal, Postnatal and Child Health Book
This book was developed in Zambia to be given to pregnant and breastfeeding mothers at antenatal and child health clinics.

 

Downloads Available:
English (2.34 MB)


 
 
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81 Pages
 
Behavior Change Communication for Improved Infant Feeding - Training Module
Trains trainers in behavior change communication skills, training techniques, and infant feeding. Includes field visits, practice training, and action planning exercises.

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.06 MB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Better Breastfeeding, Healthier Lives
Published by the INFO Report, this report describes how programs and providers can help women improve breastfeeding practices.

 

Downloads Available:
English (706.53 KB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Birth, Initiation of Breastfeeding, and the First Seven Days after Birth - Facts for Feeding
Identifies actions health care providers can take during the first week postpartum to help the mother and baby establish and maintain good breastfeeding practices.

 

Downloads Available:
English (96.08 KB)
French (62.84 KB)
Spanish (457.86 KB)
Portuguese (103.16 KB)


 
 
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15 Pages
 
Bolivia - Breastfeeding, Complementary Feeding, Maternal Nutrition and LAM Counseling Cards
These counseling cards were developed in collaboration with many partners for the Altiplanto region of Bolivia.

Contributing Partner(s): Caritas Colivaiana, Plan International Bolivia, USAID, Procosi, Servir, Project Concern, Desarolla Juvenil Comunitario, Freedom from Hunger, Aprosar, Ministerio de Salud y Prevension Social
 

Downloads Available:
Spanish (3.92 MB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Breastfeeding and HIV/ AIDS- Frequently Asked Questions
Reviews the latest information on the transmission of HIV via breastfeeding and provides programmatic guidance for field activities.

 

Downloads Available:
English (123.79 KB)
French (129.89 KB)
Spanish (199.03 KB)
Portuguese (130.35 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Breastfeeding and Maternal Nutrition- Frequently Asked Questions
Focuses on the impact of maternal nutrition on breastmilk quantity and quality, the nutritional requirements of lactating women, the impact of breastfeeding on maternal health, and implications of this information for programs.

 

Downloads Available:
English (121.56 KB)
French (127.66 KB)
Spanish (134.22 KB)
Portuguese (124.68 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Breastfeeding Questions Answered: A Guide for Providers
This publication produced by the INFO Project provides answers to questions frequently asked about breastfeeding.

 

Downloads Available:
English (314.66 KB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Breastmilk: A Critical Source of Vitamin A for Infants and Young Children- Facts for Feeding
Recommends national, community, and household level practices to improve vitamin A status of infants, young children, and pregnant and lactating women.

Contributing Partner(s): Helen Keller International, HKI/ Africa, the MOST Project
 

Downloads Available:
English (131.82 KB)
French (60.41 KB)
Spanish (121.69 KB)
Portuguese (105.02 KB)


 
 
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90 Pages
 
Can Marketing Of Multiple Vitamin/Mineral Supplements Reach the Poor? The Vitald�a Project, Bolivia
Documents the qualitative research conducted for the development of a multiple micronutrient supplement (VitalD�a) marketed to reach low income women in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. It also presents results from the baseline and final Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Behavior (KAPB) studies conducted to assess the reach of the program among women of reproductive age.

Author(s): S. Huffman
 

Downloads Available:
English (3.17 MB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Care and Feeding of Young Children Discussion Guide
Illustrates ways of promoting growth and learning in young children through everyday interactions between children and their caregivers in rural Guatemala and urban Brazil.

Author(s): P. Engle
 

Downloads Available:
English (32.07 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Celebrating Innocenti 1990-2005: Achievements, challenges and future imperatives
This document was prepared for the 15th anniversary celebration of the Innocenti declaration. It assesses the progress in achieving the Innocenti targets, examines the current challenges and reinforces the need to act rapidly in support of infant and young child feeding.

 

Downloads Available:
English (473.01 KB)


 
 
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30 Pages
 
Community-Based Strategies for Breastfeeding Promotion and Support in Developing Countries
WHO and LINKAGES examine the role of communities and community-based resource persons in providing support to mothers who breastfeed. This report is based on a review of the literature and an analysis of three projects; it assesses the impact of interventions, the mechanisms through which behaviors can be changed, and the factors that are necessary to maximize and sustain the benefits of interventions. (Hard copies of this publication can be obtained by e-mailing WHO at [email protected])

Author(s): A. Morrow, WHO
Contributing Partner(s): LINKAGES
 

Downloads Available:
English (455.36 KB)


 
 
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40 Pages
 
Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term Infants to Progress from Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature
Summarizes evidence-based literature regarding the best age to introduce complementary (semi-solid and solid) foods into the diet of the breastfed infant.

Author(s): A. Naylor, ed. and A. Morrow, co-ed.
Contributing Partner(s): Wellstart International and the LINKAGES Project
 

Downloads Available:
English (1.91 MB)


 
 
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41 Pages
 
East and Southern African Initiative - Nutrition for PLWHA Counseling Cards
This set of 11x14" counseling cards was designed for counselors and health workers to help them enhance nutrition couseling for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) during individual or group counseling. These include topics related to good nutrition and its importance, preventing infection, physical activity and managing diet.

Contributing Partner(s): RCQHC, FANTA
 

Downloads Available:
English (1.88 MB)


 
 
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70 Pages
 
Essential Health Sector Actions to Improve Maternal Nutrition in Africa
Identifies essential nutrition and health actions for pregnant and lactating women that contribute to the achievement of five nutrition-related outcomes.

Contributing Partner(s): The Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care at Makerere University in Uganda, MOST Project, SARA Project, SANA Project
 

Downloads Available:
English (505.58 KB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Essential Health Sector Actions to Improve Maternal Nutrition in Africa (Summary)
Summary of 70 page paper, Essential Health Sector Actions to Improve Maternal Nutrition in Africa.

Contributing Partner(s): The Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care at Makerere University in Uganda, MOST Project, SARA Project, SANA Project
 

Downloads Available:
English (188.43 KB)
French (486.73 KB)


 
 
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57 Pages
 
Essential Nutrition Actions - A Four Day Training Course for Planners & Managers of Health & Nutrition Programs in Indonesia: Training Guide
The purpose of this training is to prepare program managers and pre-service instructors to train service providers in an action-oriented approach to improve the nutrition of infants, young children and women. (THE TRAINING MODULE DOES NOT INCLUDE: Handouts, PowerPoints or Electronic References. To view the training module, click on the link, "English" below; to view the Handouts for this training, click here; to view the PowerPoints, click here; to view the Electronic References, click here)

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.81 MB)


 
 
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12 Pages
 
Ethiopia - Counseling Cards for Fathers
These counseling cards were developed for use with fathers, to encourage their support of breastfeeding and maternal nutrition. They tell fathers what they can do during pregnancy and breastfeeding to support the health of their wives.

Contributing Partner(s): Ethiopian MOH, CARE, CRS, World Vision, REST, SC-USA, Concern, EHNRI
 

Downloads Available:
English (828.07 KB)


 
 
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18 Pages
 
Ethiopia - Counseling Tool on Infant Feeding Options for PMTCT Sites
This counseling tool is to be used by health professionals working in PMTCT sites for the purpose of counseling and demonstrating recommended infant feeding options.

Contributing Partner(s): Ethiopian Ministry of Health
 

Downloads Available:
English (11.24 MB)
Amharic (1.5 MB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Exclusive Breastfeeding: The Only Water Source Young Infants Need - Frequently Asked Questions
Discusses the nutritional and health consequences of giving infants water during the first six months, and the role of breastfeeding in meeting an infant’s water requirements. Also available in Russian

 

Downloads Available:
English (123.65 KB)
French (123.07 KB)
Spanish (463.37 KB)
Portuguese (129.83 KB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Behavior Change Communication
Describes LINKAGES behavior change communication strategy, including essential infant feeding behaviors, priority audiences, direct messages, and supportive materials and media.

 

Downloads Available:
English (284.63 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Cost & Effectiveness
Describes the process LINKAGES' Madagascar program undertook to link the costs of its interventions with the resultant changes in infant feeding behaviors.

 

Downloads Available:
English (111.82 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Infant Feeding Assessments for PMTCT Program Design
Describes the rapid assessment process and its application in the LINKAGES Project’s PMTCT program in Zambia.

 

Downloads Available:
English (109.64 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Mainstreaming
Describes what mainstreaming means and how mainstreaming lends itself to the replication, scale up, and sustainability of project innovations.

 

Downloads Available:
English (173.13 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Policy Dialogue
Describes the conceptual framework for policy change, identifies the main policy issues related to IYCF, discusses LINKAGES strategies to address policy dialogue challenges, and summarizes lessons learned.

 

Downloads Available:
English (142.05 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Program Approach
Describes strategies, tools, and materials used by LINKAGES to achieve results.

 

Downloads Available:
English (105.68 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Results
Reports on the project’s indicators and tools for measuring change, the results achieved, and lessons learned in collecting infant feeding data.

 

Downloads Available:
English (100.62 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Training Tools
Describes LINKAGES training modules, methodologies, and performance monitoring tools.

 

Downloads Available:
English (90.86 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic EXPO LINKAGES
Please click on the Technical Initiatives link above to view slide presentations from EXPO LINKAGES.

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.25 MB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Feeding Infants and Young Children During and After Illness
This Facts for Feeding describes optimal feeding behaviors during and after illness, challenges of feeding during these times, special considerations for common illnesses, and guidelines for counseling caregivers.

 

Downloads Available:
English (95.18 KB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Feeding Low Birthweight Babies - Facts for Feeding
This most recent publication in the Facts for Feeding series provides guidance on breastmilk feeding options to ensure that low birth weight babies receive the attention needed to survive, grow, and develop.

 

Downloads Available:
English (91.86 KB)


 
 
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58 Pages
 
Formative Research for Infant Feeding Programs: Skills and Practice for Infant and Young Child Feeding and Maternal Nutrition
Trains participants to conduct formative research using effective communication skills in order to collect information to plan and improve programs.

 

Downloads Available:
English (393.29 KB)


 
 
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16 Pages
 
Ghana - Breastfeeding & Infant Feeding Counseling Cards
This set of eight counseling cards was developed to address infant feeding problems found in northern Ghana. For further information on the development of messages and materials in northern Ghana, see this case study (in PDF).

Contributing Partner(s): MOH Ghana, CRS, UNICEF, Ghana Red Cross
 

Downloads Available:
English (6.16 MB)


 
 
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18 Pages
 
Ghana - Breastfeeding & Infant Feeding Counseling Cards for Grandmothers and TBAs
These counseling cards were developed to share breastfeeding and infant feeding messages with grandmothers and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Ghana.

Contributing Partner(s): Ghana MOH, CRS, UNICEF, Ghana Red Cross
 

Downloads Available:
English (1.16 MB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Guidelines for Appropriate Complementary Feeding of Breastfed Children 6-24 months of Age
Provides feeding guidelines for children 6 to 24 months of age.

 

Downloads Available:
English (86.04 KB)
French (54.4 KB)
Spanish (450.3 KB)
Portuguese (91.69 KB)


 
 
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36 Pages
 
HIV and Infant Feeding: A Chronology of Research and Policy Advances and Their Implications for Programs
Informs program managers and others about major advances in the study of HIV and infant feeding and the policy responses to these findings.

Author(s): E. Piwoz, E. Preble
Contributing Partner(s): SARA Project
 

Downloads Available:
English (290.31 KB)
French (180.89 KB)


 
 
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47 Pages
 
HIV and Infant Feeding: Knowledge, Gaps and Challenges for the Future
A 2004 PowerPoint presentation on mother-to-child transmission of HIV and timing of HIV transmission; overview of postnatal HIV transmission risk factors; results of efforts to quantify risks of different infant feeding strategies using a simulation model; current and planned field trials of interventions to prevent MTCT through breastfeeding; discussion of future challenges. (To view the notes, first open the Powerpoint, then go to the Edit menu, then choose Edit Slides.)

Author(s): E. Piwoz and J. Ross
Contributing Partner(s): SARA Project
 

Downloads Available:
English (1.18 MB)


 
 
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74 Pages
 
Improving Breastfeeding Behaviors: Evidence from Two Decades of Intervention Research
Summarizes available research on specific interventions intended to improve four key breastfeeding behaviors.

Author(s): C. Green
 

Downloads Available:
English (437.93 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Improving Breastfeeding Practices on a Broad Scale at the Community Level: Success Stories From Africa and Latin America
Large-scale community-level behavior change programs designed to improve breastfeeding practices were implemented in Bolivia, Ghana, and Madagascar. This study describes success stories from these various areas.

 

Downloads Available:
English (125.86 KB)


 
 
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38 Pages
 
India - CARE Breastfeeding Counseling Cards
These counseling cards produced by CARE were used for house visits in India.

Contributing Partner(s): CARE
 

Downloads Available:
English (2.17 MB)


 
 
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35 Pages
 
India - CRS Counseling Cards
This set of 15 13x10" counseling cards was used during community breastfeeding promotion activities in India by CRS.

Contributing Partner(s): CRS
 

Downloads Available:
English (1.48 MB)


 
 
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25 Pages
 
India - CRS Counseling Cards
This set of 11 counseling cards in Hindi was used by CRS during community breastfeeding promotion activities. No English translation is available.

Contributing Partner(s): CRS
 

Downloads Available:
English (2.12 MB)


 
 
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38 Pages
 
India - CRS Flashcards on Breastfeeding and Maternal Nutrition (Hindi)
These 20 flashcards were used to encourage maternal nutrition in the Lucknow Zone, in India. No translation of the Hindi scripts is available.

Contributing Partner(s): CRS
 

Downloads Available:
English (2.16 MB)


 
 
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59 Pages
 
India - CRS Flashcards on Breastfeeding and Maternal Nutrition (Telugu)
These 30 flashcards were used to encourage maternal nutrition in the Hyderabad zone, in India. No English translation of the Telugu is available at this time.

Contributing Partner(s): CRS
 

Downloads Available:
English (6.87 MB)


 
 
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38 Pages
 
India - World Vision Breastfeeding Counseling Cards
These counseling cards were developed in collaboration with World Vision to provide age-specific messages on infant feeding. No English translation is available.

Contributing Partner(s): World Vision
 

Downloads Available:
English (2.39 MB)


 
 
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156 Pages
 
Infant and Young Child Feeding: A Tool for Assessing National Practices, Policies and Programmes
This three-part tool is designed to help users assess the strengths and weaknesses of policies and programs for protecting, promoting and supporting optimal feeding practices, and determine where improvements may be needed to meet the aim and objectives of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate the tool should be addressed to WHO Publications, email: [email protected] (See our other program tools)

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.46 MB)


 
 
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56 Pages
 
Infant Feeding in Emergencies, Module 1: for emergency relief staff
This infant feeding in emergencies module prepares all emergency relief staff, both international and locally recruited, to safeguard maternal and child health in emergencies by ensuring appropriate infant feeding. It is appropriate for decision-makers, regional managers, logistics officers, camp administrators, and all whose work involves care for mothers and children. LINKAGES contributed to the interagency working group on Infant Feeding in Emergencies and the UN Sub Committee on Nutrition Working Group on Emergencies to prepare this module which can be obtained by visiting the Emergency Nutrition Network website, http://www.ennonline.net/ife/index.html.

Contributing Partner(s): UN Sub Committee on Nutrition Working Group on Emergencies
 

Downloads Available:
No downloads available


 
 
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59 Pages
 
Infant Feeding in Emergencies, Module 2 version 1.0
This module aims to provide health and nutrition workers with the basic knowledge and skills to help both breastfeeding and artificially feeding women. The intended audience is health and nutrition workers who are directly concerned with the care of mothers/caregivers and infants. The module can be obtained by visiting the Emergency Nutrition Network website, http://www.ennonline.net/ife/module2/index.html.

Contributing Partner(s): ENN, IBFAN, Terre des hommes, UNICEF, UNHCR, WHO, WFP
 

Downloads Available:
No downloads available


 
 
thumbnail graphic Infant Feeding Key Indicator Monitoring Manual
This manual is designed to permit organizations to carry out routine monitoring of key infant feeding behaviors: Exclusive Breastfeeding, Timely Initiation of Breastfeeding, and Timely Complementary Feeding.

 

Downloads Available:
English (808.89 KB)


 
 
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25 Pages
 
Infant Feeding Options in the Context of HIV
This document identifies the specific behaviors required of a mother or caregiver to act upon the infant feeding recommendations and informed choice policy of WHO, UNICEF, UNAIDS, and UNFPA.

 

Downloads Available:
English (447.88 KB)


 
 
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186 Pages
 
Integrated Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Support for Infant Feeding: Community Motivators Course
The LINKAGES basic course on Integrated Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and Support for Infant Feeding (for community motivators) is designed to provide community motivators with a basic understanding of HIV facts and prevention, mechanisms of MTCT, current MTCT risk reduction interventions, and infant and young child feeding in the context of PMTCT. The course also reviews nutritional recommendations for pregnant women and new mothers in areas affected by HIV.

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.14 MB)


 
 
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265 Pages
 
Integrated Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Support for Infant Feeding: Health Providers Course
The LINKAGES basic course on Integrated Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and Support for Infant Feeding (for health providers) is designed to give clinic-based health personnel and supervisors a basic understanding of HIV facts and prevention, mechanisms of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, current MTCT risk reduction interventions, and infant feeding in the context of HIV. The course also reviews nutritional recommendations for pregnant women and new mothers in areas affected by HIV and AIDS.

 

Downloads Available:
English (2.85 MB)


 
 
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105 Pages
 
Interventions to Improve Breastfeeding Behaviors: Detailed Summaries of 51 Studies
Provides brief summaries of the available research from 51 studies on specific interventions intended to influence four key breastfeeding behaviors.

Author(s): C. Green
 

Downloads Available:
English (356.04 KB)


 
 
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39 Pages
 
Jordan - Breastfeeding & LAM Flipchart
.

Contributing Partner(s): Jordanian Ministry of Health
 

Downloads Available:
Arabic (3.1 MB)


 
 
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107 Pages
 
LAM (Lactational Amenorrhea Method): A Modern Postpartum Contraceptive Method for Women Who Breastfeed- Training Module for Health and Family Planning Service Providers
Provides information and activities to train health care personnel and community health workers to provide LAM within their child health, reproductive health, or family planning services.

 

Downloads Available:
English (533.85 KB)
French (636.36 KB)
Spanish (581.24 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic LAM CD for Program Planners: An interactive multimedia resource on the Lactational Amenorrhea Method
Contains related publications, a policy/advocacy slide presentation, IEC materials, M&E tools, and training modules. Click here to view the CD

 

Downloads Available:
No downloads available


 
 
thumbnail graphic LINKAGES Country Programs: What Worked and How We Did It
This plenary presentation from EXPO LINKAGES highlights activities from the project's various country programs.

 

Downloads Available:
English (3.52 MB)


 
 
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131 Pages
 
LINKAGES Zambia 1997-2005 Final Report
A full report on LINKAGES infant feeding and HIV/AIDS programs in Zambia.

 

Downloads Available:
English (3.03 MB)


 
 
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32 Pages
 
LINKAGES/Ghana Project 1997-2004 Final Report
Final report on LINKAGES' Ghana Country Program.

 

Downloads Available:
English (202.56 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
L’Allaitement Maternel et la Nutrition Maternelle- Fiche De Questions Pos�es Fr�quemment
Cette fiche fait partie d’une s�rie de publications sur des questions pos�es fr�quemment concernant des th�mes dont traite le Projet LINKAGES. Le pr�sent num�ro se penche sur l’impact que comporte la nutrition maternelle sur la quantit� et la qualit� du lait maternel, les besoins nutritionnels de la femme qui allaite, l’impact de l’allaitement maternel sur la sant� de la m�re et les implications de cette information pour les programmes.

 

Downloads Available:
French (127.66 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Madagascar - LAM Counseling Cards
These two 9x12" counseling cards were used at community meetings and health clinics to promote LAM as a method of family planning (in English and Malagasy).

Contributing Partner(s): JSI, BASICS, UNICEF, Peace Corps, ADRA, Seecaline
 

Downloads Available:
English (720.17 KB)


 
 
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59 Pages
 
Madagascar Story
This publication documents the major elements of the LINKAGES-AED program in Madagascar. It is useful to planners and programmers interested in improving breastfeeding and other nutritional practices at large scale.

 

Downloads Available:
English (2.3 MB)
French (2.06 MB)


 
 
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63 Pages
 
Manual de Lactancia Materna
This Spanish manual serves as a reference and counseling guide for health care personnel and community health workers promoting breastfeeding and LAM, a postpartum contraceptive method for women who breastfeed.

Contributing Partner(s): Institute for Reproductive Health, La Leche League Honduras, UNICEF, USAID, Wellstart International
 

Downloads Available:
Spanish (2.98 MB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Maternal Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Dietary Guide
This document attempts to help health workers translate general recommendations for increased nutrient requirements into individual dietary and behavioral changes for mothers. It also attempts to assist programs in the development of appropriate protocols and counseling materials on maternal nutrition.

Contributing Partner(s): CORE Group
 

Downloads Available:
English (1.15 MB)


 
 
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99 Pages
 
Maternal Nutrition: Issues and Interventions (A Computer-based Slide Presentation for Advancing Maternal Nutrition) Presentation Slides with Notes
Offers information to help nutrition advocates influence policy-makers and program planners to address maternal undernutrition. (To view the notes, first open the Powerpoint, then go to the Edit menu, then choose Edit Slides.)

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.17 MB)
French (1.4 MB)
Spanish (1.66 MB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Meeting the Iron Requirements of Infants and Young Children
Discusses the causes and consequences of iron deficiencies in infants and young children (less than 2 years old) and recommends actions to prevent and treat it.

 

Downloads Available:
English (74.38 KB)
Portuguese (174.63 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Mother-to-Mother Support for Breastfeeding- Frequently Asked Questions
Focuses on a support group method where experienced breastfeeding mothers model optimal breastfeeding practices, share information and experiences, and offer support to other women in an atmosphere of trust and respect. (This publication is also available in Russian.)

 

Downloads Available:
English (102.7 KB)
French (128.3 KB)
Spanish (106.96 KB)


 
 
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48 Pages
 
Mother-to-Mother Support Group Methodology and Infant Feeding (Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding): Training of Trainers
Prepares participants to train health care providers or community-based volunteers to organize and facilitate mother-to-mother support groups on infant feeding. To view the Chinese version of this training module, click here. (The Chinese version was translated by Chia-Wen Lee, PhD, Huei-Man Lai, MA, and Shu-Fang Wang, MSc.)

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.36 MB)
Spanish (544.73 KB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Nacimiento, iniciaci�n de la lactancia materna y los primeros siete d�as despu�s del nacimiento- Datos importantes sobre alimentac�on
Aproximadamente entre una cuarta parte y la mitad de las muertes durante el primer a�o de vida ocurren en la primera semana. Muchas de las intervenciones que mejorar�n la salud y la supervivencia de los reci�n nacidos tienen un costo relativamente bajo y es factible implementarlas. Una de ellas es la lactancia materna inmediata y exclusiva. Esta intervenci�n tambi�n puede ayudar a las mujeres al minimizar la hemorragia que tiene lugar inmediatamente despu�s del parto, una de las causas m�s comunes de mortalidad materna.

 

Downloads Available:
Spanish (451.84 KB)


 
 
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33 Pages
 
Nepal - Maternal Nutrition & Breastfeeding Counseling Cards
These counseling cards were used in Nepal to promote messages on breastfeeding, complementary feeding and maternal nutrition.

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.87 MB)


 
 
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20 Pages
 
Nutrition Job Aids: Regions with High HIV Prevalence
LINKAGES and its partners developed nutrition protocols to remind workers of information to be shared and procedures to be followed at six contact points with mothers: 1) antenatal, 2) immediate postpartum, 3) postpartum and family planning, 4) immunization, 5) growth monitoring/well child, and 6) sick child consultations. This protocol covers such topics as infant and young child feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and maternal nutrition, specifically for regions of high HIV prevalence.

Contributing Partner(s): RCQHC, REDSO/ESA, BASICS, UNICEF, WHO
 

Downloads Available:
English (160.85 KB)


 
 
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15 Pages
 
Nutrition Job Aids: Regions with Low HIV Prevalence
LINKAGES and its partners developed nutrition protocols to remind workers of information to be shared and procedures to be followed at six contact points with mothers: 1) antenatal, 2) immediate postpartum, 3) postpartum and family planning, 4) immunization, 5) growth monitoring/well child, and 6) sick child consultations. This protocol covers such topics as infant and young child feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and maternal nutrition, specifically for regions of low HIV prevalence.

Contributing Partner(s): RCQHC, REDSO/ESA, BASICS, UNICEF, WHO
 

Downloads Available:
English (161.42 KB)


 
 
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43 Pages
 
Packaged Foods for Complementary Feeding: Marketing Challenges and Opportunities
Examines strategies for using packaged complementary foods to improve the nutritional well being of young children in developing countries.

Author(s): R. Porter, L. Shafritz
 

Downloads Available:
English (113.9 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV Communication Guide for Health Workers
This guide, developed in Zambia, provides information that health workers can use to communicate with mothers and community members on PMTCT and infant and young child feeding. It also gives communication tips for promoting and supporting healthy behaviors.

 

Downloads Available:
English (5.54 MB)


 
 
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80 Pages
 
Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Asia: Practical Guidance for Programs
Provides technical information, program guidelines, and a basis for policy dialogue and coordination for preventing MTCT in resource-constrained settings common in Asia.

Author(s): E. Piwoz and E. Preble
Contributing Partner(s): The Academy for Educational Development's Center for Nutrition and Family Health
 

Downloads Available:
English (616.07 KB)


 
 
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60 Pages
 
Promoting the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) in Jordan Increases Modern Contraception Use in the Extended Postpartum Period
This report assess the impact of LAM on continued modern method use applying a survey conducted among 3,183 women in 11 child health centers in Jordan

 

Downloads Available:
English (2.39 MB)


 
 
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182 Pages
 
Quantifying the Benefits of Breastfeeding: A Summary of the Evidence
Presents an annotated bibliography of more than 180 studies that provide scientific and epidemiological evidence in support of the World Health Organization’s and UNICEF’s Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. (The printed Spanish version of this publication is not currently available. La versi�n impreso en espa�ol no est� disponible ahora.)

Author(s): N. Le�n-Cava, J. Ross, C. Lutter, L. Martin
Contributing Partner(s): Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
 

Downloads Available:
English (2.03 MB)
Spanish (539.84 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaire from BOLIVIA Community Assessment of Infant Feeding Practices
LINKAGES and its PROCOSI partners in Bolivia used this survey form to gather information on infant feeding practices among mothers of infants less than 12 months old.

 

Downloads Available:
Spanish (124 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from ETHIOPIA Community Assessment of Essential Nutrition Actions and Other Health Behaviors
LINKAGES and the ESHE Project used these 4 survey forms in Ethiopia for household interviews and interviews with mothers of infants 0–11 months, 12–23 months, and 24–59 months old. The program in Ethiopia was within a broad nutrition and child survival context which is reflected in the surveys.

 

Downloads Available:
English (104 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from GHANA Community Assessment of Breastfeeding Knowledge and Behavior
LINKAGES and its partners in Ghana collected information on infant feeding knowledge and practice among mothers of infants less than 12 months old, fathers, and grandmothers.

 

Downloads Available:
English (116.62 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from MADAGASCAR Community Assessment of Essential Nutrition Actions and Other Health Behaviors
LINKAGES and its partners in Madagascar developed questionnaires for mothers of children 0–5 months, 6–11 months, 12–23 months old. The program in Madagascar was within a broad nutrition and child survival context which is reflected in the surveys.

 

Downloads Available:
English (108.36 KB)
French (108.31 KB)
Malagasy (108.81 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from TANZANIA Integrated PMTCT Community Survey
LINKAGES and its partners in Tanzania developed a questionnaire for mothers of infants less than 12 months old on infant feeding practices, reproductive health, and HIV. A questionnaire for adults in the community focused on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and practices; use of HIV counseling and testing services, and attitudes on mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

 

Downloads Available:
English (102.56 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from ZAMBIA Baseline Prior to PMTCT Media Campaign
LINKAGES and the District Health Management Board in Zambia conducted a baseline survey prior to launching Act Now!, a media campaign. The survey form was used with mothers of infants less than 12 months old and included questions about antenatal care and infant feeding practices and knowledge about mother-to-child transmission of HIV. .

 

Downloads Available:
English (88.35 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from ZAMBIA Integrated Infant Feeding and HIV Counseling Program
As part of the Ndola Demonstration Project, LINKAGES developed clinic and community-based surveys to gather information on infant feeding practices, knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and use of HIV services. Questionnaires were designed for use with pregnant women, mothers of infants 0–5 months and 6–11 months of age, and adults in the community.

 

Downloads Available:
English (273.45 KB)


 
 
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35 Pages
 
Recommended Feeding and Dietary Practices to Improve Infant and Maternal Nutrition
This paper identifies a set of recommended feeding and dietary practices to break cycles of poor health and nutrition that pass from generation to generation. It also provides the scientific evidence to support the recommendations.

 

Downloads Available:
English (259.68 KB)
French (635.18 KB)
Spanish (1.01 MB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Recommended Practices to Improve Infant Nutrition during the First Six Months- Facts for Feeding
Provides infant feeding guidelines for the first six months of life. Provides guidelines for activities appropriate to local conditions.

 

Downloads Available:
English (76.48 KB)
French (78.34 KB)
Spanish (100.71 KB)
Portuguese (88.06 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Seeing is believing: Mobilizing community support for breastfeeding in Ghana
This article was originally published in nutrition magazine and is included here with permission of NutritionWorks, which retains full copyright. The magazine is available at the nutrition website

 

Downloads Available:
English (4.59 MB)


 
 
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2 Pages
 
Spotlight on LAM Users: Transition to Other Modern Methods of Contraception after Six Months Postpartum
Provides reproductive health and maternal and child health programs with new information (from a 2004 LINKAGES study in Jordan) to advocate for the offering of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) as a means to increase use of effective birth spacing methods and optimal infant feeding practices.

 

Downloads Available:
English (78.31 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Spotlight on PMTCT: Reducing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV among Women who Breastfeed
The purpose of this issue of Spotlight is to provide decision makers, program managers, and health workers with guidance on how to support HIV-positive mothers who choose to breastfeed so that they can minimize the risk of transmission and protect their own health and the health of their infant. For many HIV-positive mothers in resource-limited settings, breastfeeding is the only or the safest infant feeding strategy available.

 

Downloads Available:
English (88.22 KB)
French (94.43 KB)
Portuguese (102.5 KB)


 
 
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2 Pages
 
Spotlight on Replacement Feeding: Transition to Replacement Feeding by HIV-Positive Women Who Breastfeed
Many gaps remain in our knowledge of the risks associated with various infant feeding strategies under different conditions. This guidance, based on the best information currently available, is for HIV-positive women who choose to transition from breastfeeding to replacement feeding at about 6 months.

 

Downloads Available:
English (66.83 KB)
French (162.57 KB)
Portuguese (73.92 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Successful Community Nutrition Programming: Lessons from Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda
This report brings together the main findings of a series of assessments of successful community nutrition programming carried out in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda between 1999 and 2000.

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.8 MB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Successfully Scaling-Up Exclusive Breastfeeding: Lessons from Madagascar
This first CHNRI Research Brief reports on LINKAGES' activities in Madagascar that uses an integrated approach to improve breastfeeding rates.

 

Downloads Available:
English (280.83 KB)


 
 
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50 Pages
 
The Case for Promoting Multiple Vitamin/ Mineral Supplements for Women of Reproductive Age in Developing Countries
Provides guidance on reference standards, the selection of appropriate nutrients and their quantities, and the purchasing of appropriate supplements for pregnant women and women of reproductive age in developing countries.

Author(s): S. Huffman, J. Baker, J. Shumann, E. Zehner
 

Downloads Available:
English (711.77 KB)
French (612.13 KB)
Spanish (967.42 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
The Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)- Frequently Asked Questions
Focuses on LAM as a modern, temporary family planning method for women who breastfeed, and is addressed to the child survival and family planning health care providers.

 

Downloads Available:
English (234.86 KB)
French (124.19 KB)
Spanish (105 KB)


 
 
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105 Pages
 
Training Methodologies and Principles of Adult Learning: Application for Training in Infant and Young Child Nutrition and Related Topics
The purpose of this training module is to strengthen the capacity of facilitators/trainers to plan, organize, and conduct training of health care workers who implement programs in infant and young child feeding, essential nutrition actions, the lactational amennorhea method, and/or prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

 

Downloads Available:
English (472.81 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic USAID's Investment in IYCF: LINKAGES Achievements and Results
The opening plenary presenation of EXPO LINKAGES.

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.89 MB)


 
 
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54 Pages
 
Using the Essential Nutrition Actions to Improve the Nutrition of Women and Children in Ethiopia, including under Situations of Emergencies and HIV and AIDS: Training Guide
This Trainer’s Guide is intended to equip senior health instructors and planners in Ethiopia with the basic theory and technical update to design and implement the Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) approach, or to train others to do so. (THE TRAINING MODULE DOES NOT INCLUDE: Handouts, PowerPoints or Electronic References. To view the training module, click on the link, "English" below; to view the Handouts for this training, click here; to view the PowerPoints, click here; to view the Electronic References, click here)

 

Downloads Available:
English (418.24 KB)


 
 
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108 Pages
 
Women’s Nutrition throughout the Life Cycle and in the Context of HIV and AIDS
The purpose of this module is to explore issues regarding women’s nutrition: women’s nutritional status, causes of malnutrition, the effects of malnutrition on the intergenerational life cycle, the consequences of inadequate weight and height, micronutrient deficiencies, and interventions to improve women’s nutrition. The module also addresses the synergistic relationship between nutrition and HIV infection, the nutritional requirements of HIV-positive pregnant or lactating women and adolescent girls, and nutritional care and support of HIV-positive women.

 

Downloads Available:
English (535.61 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Africa Regional PMTCT and IYCF Program
Describes LINKAGES' program with national, regional, and international partners that promoted and facilitated PMTCT policies and programs and built capacity to integrate optimal IYCF into existing maternal and child health and community PMTCT services.

 

Downloads Available:
English (109.96 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Bolivia
Describes LINKAGES' infant and young child feeding activities with PROCOSI, a network of local and international health organizations in Bolivia (1998-2003).

 

Downloads Available:
English (147.3 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: East and Southern Africa
Describes LINKAGES' regional activities with The Regional Centre for Quality Health Care in Uganda, and the East, Central, and Southern Africa Health Community Secretariat in Tanzania.

 

Downloads Available:
English (110.8 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Ethiopia
Describes LINKAGES' essential nutrition actions program with the Ministry of Health and other local partners in Ethiopia.

 

Downloads Available:
English (122.17 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Ghana
Describes LINKAGES' breastfeeding promotion and protection activities with the Ghana Health Service and other local partners in Ghana (1997-2004).

 

Downloads Available:
English (133.78 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: India
Describes LINKAGES' infant feeding and maternal nutrition program initiatives with CARE, Catholic Relief Service, and World Vision in India (April 1997-June 2004).

 

Downloads Available:
English (183.72 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Jordan
Describes LINKAGES' country program activities with the Ministry of Health to integrate LAM into health care facilities in Jordan. (March 1998 - March 2004)

 

Downloads Available:
English (138.02 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Madagascar
Describes LINKAGES' essential nutrition actions program in Madagascar.

 

Downloads Available:
English (120.94 KB)
French (522.48 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Zambia
Describes LINKAGES' infant feeding and HIV programs with central and district health, AIDS, and nutrition agencies in Zambia.

 

Downloads Available:
English (72.08 KB)


 
 


 

 

 

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